On this day in history:
43BC – – – Marcus Tullius Cicero is assassinated in Formia.
574 – – – – Byzantine Emperor Justin II retires due to recurring seizures of insanity. He abdicates the throne in favor of his general Tiberius, proclaiming him Caesar. Imagine that! A ruler recognizing seizures of insanity!
1703 – – – The greatest windstorm ever recorded in the southern part of Great Britain, makes landfall. Winds gust up to 120 mph and 9,000 people die.
1776 – – – Gilbert du Molier, Marquis de Lafayette, arranges to enter the American military as a major general.
1787 – – – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1869 – – – Jesse James commits his first confirmed bank robbery in Gallatin, Missouri.
1904 – – – Comparative fuel trials begin between warships HMS Spiteful and HMS Peterel. Spiteful was the first warship powered solely by fuel oil, and the trials led to the obsolescence of coal ships in the Royal Navy.
1917 – – – World War I – The United States declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1922 – – – The Parliament of Northern Ireland votes to remain a part of the United Kingdom and not unify with Southern Ireland.
1930 – – – W1XAV in Boston telecasts video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers. The telecast also includes the first television commercial in the U.S., and advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers, who sponsored the radio show.
1932 – – – German-born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein is granted an American visa.
1941 – – – THE DAY THAT WILL LIVE IN IMFAMY – The Imperial Japanese Navy carries out a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet and its defending Army and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor.
American Losses were:
US Army: 218 KIA, 364 WIA.
US Navy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA.
US Marine Corp: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.
Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.
TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA.
USS Arizona (BB-39) – total loss when a bomb hit her magazine.
USS Oklahoma (BB-37) – Total loss when she capsized and sunk in the harbor.
USS California (BB-4 4) – Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
USS West Virginia (BB-48) – Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
USS Nevada – (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired.
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) – Light damage.
USS Maryland (BB-46) – Light damage.
USS Tennessee (BB-43) Light damage.
USS Utah (AG-16) – (former battleship used as a target) – Sunk.
USS New Orleans (CA-32) – Light Damage..
USS San Francisco (CA-38) – Light Damage.
USS Detroit (CL-8) – Light Damage.
USS Raleigh (CL-7) – Heavily damaged but repaired.
USS Helena (CL-50) – Light Damage.
USS Honolulu (CL-48) – Light Damage..
1942 – – – WWII – British commandos conduct Operation Frankton – a raid on shipping in Bordeaux Harbor.
1946 – – – A fire at the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia, kills 119 people, the deadliest hotel fire in U.S. history.
1949 – – – Chinese Civil War – The government of the Republic of China moves from Nanking to Taipei, Taiwan.
1965 – – – Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I simultaneously revoke mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.
1972 – – – Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission is launched. The crew takes the photograph known as The Blue Marble as they leave Earth.
1995 – – – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, a little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.
Composed by Robert A. McConnell
Any opinions expressed herein are solely those of the writer and not necessarily those of the U.S.-Ukraine Foundation.