On this day in history:
335 – – – – Athanasius is banished to Trier, on charge he prevented a grain fleet from sailing to Constantinople. Athanasius also called Athanasius, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church. His on-again-off-again episcopate spanned 45 years (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373), of which over 17 encompassed five exiles, when his episcopate was replaced on the order of four different Roman Emperors. He was a Christian theologian and a chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.
680 – – – – The Sixth Ecumenical Council commences in Constantinople. The Council, among other things, condemned monoenergism and Monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two natures – human and divine.
1426 – – – Lam So’n uprising – Lam So’n rebels emerge victorious against the Ming army in the Battle of Tot Dong – Chuc Dong taking place in Dong Quan (now Hanoi).
1492 – – – It might be the year we recall Columbus setting sail but on this date the Ensisheim meteorite – the oldest known date of a meteorite strike – impacts the Earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.
1619 – – – Elizabeth Stuart is crowned Queen of Bohemia.
1775 – – – John Murray, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, starts the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America by issuing Lord Dunmore’s Offer of Emancipation, which offered freedom to slaves who abandoned their colonial masters to fight with Murray and the British.
1811 – – – Tecumseh’s War – the Battle of Tippecanoe is fought near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana. The war was between American forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indian Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (commonly known as “The Prophet”) were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory. As tensions and violence increased, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy’s headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash rivers. Tecumseh, not yet ready to oppose the United States by force, was away recruiting allies when Harrison’s army arrived. Tenskwatawa, a spiritual leader but not a military man, was in charge. Harrison camped near Prophetstown on November 6 and arranged to meet with Tenskwatawa the following day. Early the next morning, however, warriors from Prophetstown attacked Harrison’s army. Although the outnumbered attackers took Harrison’s army by surprise, Harrison and his men stood their ground for more than two hours. The Native Americans were ultimately repulsed when their ammunition ran low. After the battle, they abandoned Prophetstown and Harrison’s men burned it to the ground, destroying the food supplies stored for the winter. The soldiers returned to their homes. Harrison, having accomplished his goal of destroying Prophetstown, proclaimed he had won a decisive victory. He gained the nickname “Tippecanoe”, which was popularized in the campaign song “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” during the presidential election of 1840, which Harrison won. The defeat was a setback for Tecumseh’s confederacy from which it never fully recovered. American public opinion blamed the violence on British interference in American affairs through financial and munitions support for the Indians. This led to a further deterioration of relations with Britain and was a catalyst of the War of 1812, which began six months later.
1861 – – – American Civil War – Battle of Belmont – In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.
1874 – – – And in the history of political cartoons a cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the Republican Party.
1893 – – – Woman’s suffrage – Women in Colorado are granted the right to vote, the second state to do so.
1907 – – – Jesus Garcia saves the entire town of Nacozari de Garcia (a city in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora) by driving a burning train full of dynamite 3.7 miles away before it can explode.
1908 – – – Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid are reportedly killed in San Vicente Canton, Bolivia.
1910 – – – The first air freight shipment – from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright Brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.
1913 – – – The first day of the Great Lakes Storm of 1913, a massive blizzard that ultimately killed 250 people and caused over $5 million damage (equivalent of about $118,098,000 in 2013 dollars).
1914 – – – German colony of Kiaochow Bay and its center at Tsingtao are captured by Japanese forces.
1916 – – – Jeannette Rankin is the first woman elected to Congress. Rankin, a Republican from Montana served in Congress, each time for one term. Each of Rankin’s Congressional terms coincided with initiation of U.S. military intervention in each of the two world wars. A lifelong pacifist and a supporter of non-interventionism, she was one of 50 House members, along with 6 Senators, who opposed the war declaration of 1917 and was defeated in the next election. Again elected in 1940 she was the only member of Congress to vote against declaration of on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Again she was defeated in the next election after the vote. Of some note Rankin was defeated in 1942 by Mike Mansfield who later was elected to the Senate and served as Majority Leader for some time.
1917 – – – World War I – Third Battle of Gaza ends – British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.
1919 – – – The first Palmer Raid is conducted on the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested in 23 U.S. cities. The Palmer Raids were a series of raids conducted during the First Red Scare by the United States Departmetn of Justice under the administration of President Woodrow Wilson to capture and arrest suspected radical leftists, mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants and especially anarchists and communists, and deport them. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer’s efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor, which had authority for deportations and objected to Palmer’s methods.
1933 – – – Fiorello H. La Guardia is elected the 99th mayor of New York.
1941 – – – World War II – Soviet hospital ship Armenia is sunk by German planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated over 5,000 people died in the sinking.
1944 – – – Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected for a fourth term.
1956 – – – (a) Suez Crisis – The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution calling for the United Kingdom, France and Israel to withdraw their troops immediately from Egypt. (b) Hungarian Revolution – Janos Kadar returns to Budapest in a Soviet armored convoy, officially taking office as the next Hungarian leader. By this point most armed resistance had been defeated.
1967 – – – (a) Carl B. Stokes is elected Mayor of Cleveland becoming the first African-American elected mayor of a major American city. (b) President Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
1972 – – – President Nixon is re-elected.
1973 – – – Congress overrides President Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.
1983 – – – U.S. Senate bombing – a bomb explodes inside the Capitol, No one is injured but an estimated $250,000 in damage is caused. The bombing was motivated by United States military involvement in Lebanon and Grenada. Six members of the radical left-wing “Resistance Conspiracy” were arrested in May 1988 and charged with the bombing, as well as related bombings of Fort McNair and the Washington Navy Yard which occurred April 25, 1983, and April 20, 1984 respectively. The force of the device, hidden under a bench at the eastern end of the corridor outside the Chamber, blew off the door to the office of Democratic Leader Robert C. Byrd. Furthermore, the blast also punched a hole in a wall partition, sending a shower of pulverized brick, plaster, and glass into the Republican cloakroom. The Senate adjourned at 7:02 p.m. A crowded reception which I attended, held near the Senate Chamber, broke up two hours later. At 10:58 p.m., an explosion took place while the adjacent halls were virtually deserted.
1989 – – – Douglas Wilder becomes the first African-American governor (Virginia) in the United States.
2000 – – – U.S. presidential election is eventually resolved in the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court case, electing George W. Bush the 43rd President. The Court ruled that there was an Equal Protection Clause violation in using different standards of counting in different counties and ruled that no alternative method could be established within the time limit set by Title 3 of the United States Code , Section 5 (“Determination of controversy as to appointment of electors”), which was December 12. The vote regarding the Equal Protection Clause was 7–2, and regarding the lack of an alternative method was 5–4. Three concurring justices also asserted that the Florida Supreme Court had violated Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution, by misinterpreting Florida election law that had been enacted by the Florida Legislature. The decision allowed the previous vote certification to stand, as made by the Florida Secretary of State for George W. Bush as the winner of Florida’s 25 electoral votes. Florida’s votes gave Bush, 271 electoral votes, one more than the required 270 to win the Electoral College.
Composed by Robert A. McConnell
Any opinions expressed herein are solely those of the writer and not necessarily those of the U.S.-Ukraine Foundation.